This assignment provides the opportunity for the student to find and appraise resources related to the PICOT question from Week 2. The focus of this assignment is to evaluate pertinent literature that supports the practice change intervention.

Note: You are to locate original studies with research conducted and published by the primary investigator. You may also use systematic reviews or Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs).

Course Outcomes

This assignment enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:

CO1: Integrate evidence-based and research to support advancement of holistic nursing care in diverse healthcare settings. (PO 1,4)

CO2: Integrate knowledge related to evidence-based practice and person-centered care to improve health outcome. (PO 1, 2)

CO4: Develop knowledge related to research and evidence-based practice as a basis for designing and critiquing research studies. (PO 1, 5)

CO5: Analyze research findings and evidence-based practice to advance holistic care initiatives that promote positive healthcare outcomes. (PO 1, 2, 5)

Due Date: Sunday 11:59 PM MT at the end of Week 5

Total Points Possible: 200 Points


Find and review ten (10) scholarly, peer-reviewed research articles, systematic reviews, or CPGs in support of the practice change intervention. Complete the  svg icon download - (ANSWER) NR505NP Week 5: Research Summary Assignment downloadtable for each article.

  1. State the PICOT question
  2. For each article, supply the following:
    1. The complete reference for the article in current APA format
    2. Description of the purpose of the study/review/practice guideline
    3. Description of the evidence type
      1. Research article/systematic review/CPG
      2. If a source is a research article
        1. Is the study quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods?
        2. Is the study experimental, quasi-experimental, or descriptive?
    4. Description of the sample, sample size, and setting (not used for CPG)
    5. Discussion of the data collection methods used (not used for CPG)
    6. Discussion of the study findings or CPG content
    7. Assessment of the limitations of the study (not used for CPG)
    8. Discussion of the relevance the study to the PICOT question and advanced practice nursing

Preparing the Assignment:

  1. Use the designated Research Summary Table Worksheet to supply the required information.
  2. All scholarly, peer-reviewed research articles must be current – within a 5-year time frame – unless a valid rationale is provided, and the instructor has approved the use of an older reference.
  3. Use APA formatting for references

Directions and Assignment Criteria

Assignment Criteria Points % Description
PICOT question 20 10% PICOT question provided in sentence format
Articles 1-10 15/article

150 total

7.5% / article

75% total

For each article:
  • Article is scholarly
  • Publication date is current within 5 years
  • Purpose and evidence type clearly stated
  • Describes sample, sample size, setting and data collection methods
  • Discusses study findings and limitations
  • Explains relevance to PICOT question and implications for advanced nursing practice
APA 20 10%
  • Use of worksheet template
  • Correct APA format for the following:
    • Font style and size
    • Citing and referencing sources
    • Mechanics of style (abbreviations, capitalization, italics, numbers)
Graduate-level writing style 10 5%
    • Correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure
  • Clarity, organization, and logical flow of ideas within writing
  • Synthesis of information is present with no more than one short direct quote (15 words or less)
  • Correct APA format for the following:
    • Font style and size
    • Title and reference pages
    • Citing and referencing sources
    • Mechanics of style (abbreviations, capitalization, italics, numbers)
  • Use of template
Total  200 100 %  





PICOT Question:

Write out in the PICOT question sentence format.

In the ICU nurses, what is the effect of appropriate nurse staff ratios in comparison to understaffing on patient over a period of eight months?

Article 1

Full reference for article (APA Format) Blume, K. S., Dietermann, K., Kirchner-Heklau, U., Winter, V., Fleischer, S., Kreidl, L. M., Meyer, G., & Schreyögg, J. (2021). Staffing levels and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes: Umbrella review and qualitative study. Health Services Research, 10.1111/1475-6773.13647. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13647
Purpose The study aimed to retrieve comprehensive nursing-sensitive patient outcomes (NSPOs) from nurse staffing published journals and from healthcare professionals.
Evidence Type This resource is a review. It is a qualitative study and non-experimental
Sample, Sample Size, and Setting The sample included in the study were health experts. The sample size was 16 experts. The participants were from different parts in Germany.
Data Collection Data was collected through interviews and the review of literature published January 2007 and June 2018 through searches of the following three electronic databases: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL.
Study Findings The article found 22 and 76 NSPOs from the umbrella review and interviews respectively.  The article found that when an institution has fewer nurses, the quality of care is compromised and a reduction in patient outcome is realized.
Limitations (State why the limitations) The limitation of this study was the sampling size. Due to the small sample size, the list of NSPOs is not comprehensive to be adopted. The results of the study can be used to generalize a population.
Relevance to the PICOT and Implications for Advanced Nursing Practice This article is relevant to the PICOT question because it discusses the impact of nursing staffing on nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. NSPOs are important in nursing practice. This article emphasizes on the factors that may hinder nurses from optimizing patient outcomes. Nurse leaders need to ensure that their staff are not exhausted to compromise on quality.


Article 2

Full reference for article (APA Format) Bridges, J., Griffiths, P., Oliver, E., & Pickering, R. M. (2019). Hospital nurse staffing and staff–patient interactions: An observational study. BMJ Quality & Safety, 28(9), 706–713. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2018-008948
Purpose To investigate the relationship between nurses staffing levels, the skills, and the quality and quantity of daytime interactions with patients in hospital wards.
Evidence Type The study is a research article. It is a quantitative study and non- experimental.
Sample, Sample Size, and Setting The study selected 44 full-time equivalent nursing staff from two NHS hospital Trusts.
Data Collection Data was collected using the Quality of Interaction Schedule (QuIS) which is an observational, time sampling tool. The tool collected data on the quality of interactions between nurses and patients.
Study Findings The study found that the staffing type was not associated with the patient outcomes. The study also found out that as registered nurses cared for more patients, the odds for negative interactions were increased.
Limitations (State why the limitations) Since this study was an observational study, causal inference cannot be directly made.
Relevance to the PICOT and Implications for Advanced Nursing Practice This study is relevant to the PICOT question because it addresses the relationship between nurse staffing levels and provision of care. The study shows that if the nursing staff is understaffed, the provision of care is lowered. This will translate to negative patient outcome.

Policies and practices that focus on improving the supply and retention of registered nurses should be adopted by the nursing department.

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